Actual English


Actual translate: 現實的,實際的;真實的,真正的. Learn more in the Cambridge English-Chinese traditional Dictionary. Actual English with Jennifer - Lesson 15: Spending Habits Hello, this is Actual English, the real English lesson by Jennifer Clyde. This is the 15th lesson of Actual English Speaking. In this lesson, she will help you learn how to learn about spending habits. Full Episode List of Actual English and Actual Speaking. Actual (adj.) early 14c., 'pertaining to acts or an action;' late 14c. In the broader sense of 'real, existing' (as opposed to potential, ideal, etc.); from Old French actuel 'now existing, up to date' (13c.), from Late Latin actualis 'active, pertaining to action,' adjectival form of Latin actus 'a doing' (from PIE'to drive, draw out or forth, move').

Also found in: Thesaurus, Medical, Legal, Financial, Acronyms, Idioms, Encyclopedia.
Related to actual: Actual Cost, actual time


a. Existing in reality and not potential, possible, simulated, or false: The actual damages were less than first reported. In the actual test, the mechanism did not work as the computer model predicted. See Synonyms at real1.
b. Based on fact: The actual history of the voyage is different from the popular accounts.
2. Conforming to the characteristics of a group or type; typical: Is he an actual doctor or a fake?
[Middle English, from Old French, active, from Late Latin āctuālis, from Latin āctus, past participle of agere, to drive, do; see ag- in Indo-European roots.]
American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fifth Edition. Copyright © 2016 by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. All rights reserved.


(ˈæktʃʊəl) adj
2. real or genuine
4. (usually preceded by your) informaloftenfacetiousBrit (intensifier): that music's by your actual Mozart, isn't it?.
[C14: actuel existing, from Late Latin āctuālis relating to acts, practical, from Latin āctus act]
Usage: The excessive use of actual and actually should be avoided. They are unnecessary in sentences such as in actual fact, he is forty-two, and he did actually go to the play but did not enjoy it
Collins English Dictionary – Complete and Unabridged, 12th Edition 2014 © HarperCollins Publishers 1991, 1994, 1998, 2000, 2003, 2006, 2007, 2009, 2011, 2014


(ˈæk tʃu əl)
1. existing in act, fact, or reality; real: an actual case; the actual cost.
2. existing now; present; current: the ship's actual position.
[1275–1325; < Late Latin āctuālis= Latin āctu- (s. of āctusact) + -ālis-al1]
Random House Kernerman Webster's College Dictionary, © 2010 K Dictionaries Ltd. Copyright 2005, 1997, 1991 by Random House, Inc. All rights reserved.


1. 'actual'

You use actual to emphasize that the place, object, or person you are talking about is the real or genuine one.

The predicted results and the actual results are very different.
The interpretation bore no relation to the actual words spoken.

Be Careful!
You only use actual in front of a noun. You do not say that something 'is actual'.

2. 'current' and 'present'

You do not use 'actual' to describe something that is happening, being done, or being used at the present time. Instead you use current or present.

Actual English With Jennifer Lesson 500

The store needs more than $100,000 to survive the current crisis.
Is the present situation really any different from many others in the past?
Collins COBUILD English Usage © HarperCollins Publishers 1992, 2004, 2011, 2012
Adj.1.actual - presently existing in fact and not merely potential or possible; 'the predicted temperature and the actual temperature were markedly different'; 'actual and imagined conditions'
potential, possible - existing in possibility; 'a potential problem'; 'possible uses of nuclear power'
2.actual - taking place in reality; not pretended or imitated; 'we saw the actual wedding on television'; 'filmed the actual beating'
real, existent - being or occurring in fact or actuality; having verified existence; not illusory; 'real objects'; 'real people; not ghosts'; 'a film based on real life'; 'a real illness'; 'real humility'; 'Life is real! Life is earnest!'- Longfellow
3.actual - being or reflecting the essential or genuine character of something; 'her actual motive'; 'a literal solitude like a desert'- G.K.Chesterton; 'a genuine dilemma'
true - consistent with fact or reality; not false; 'the story is true'; 'it is undesirable to believe a proposition when there is no ground whatever for supposing it true'- B. Russell; 'the true meaning of the statement'
4.actual - existing in act or fact; 'rocks and trees...the actual world'; 'actual heroism'; 'the actual things that produced the emotion you experienced'
real, existent - being or occurring in fact or actuality; having verified existence; not illusory; 'real objects'; 'real people; not ghosts'; 'a film based on real life'; 'a real illness'; 'real humility'; 'Life is real! Life is earnest!'- Longfellow
5.actual - being or existing at the present moment; 'the ship's actual position is 22 miles due south of Key West'
current - occurring in or belonging to the present time; 'current events'; 'the current topic'; 'current negotiations'; 'current psychoanalytic theories'; 'the ship's current position'
Based on WordNet 3.0, Farlex clipart collection. © 2003-2012 Princeton University, Farlex Inc.


1.genuine, real, true, confirmed, authentic, verified, truthful, bona fide, dinkum(Austral & N.Z. informal)They are using local actors or the actual people involved.
genuinemade-up, probable, untrue, unreal, fictitious
2.real, substantial, concrete, definite, tangibleShe had written some notes, but she hadn't started the actual work.
realsupposed, theoretical, hypothetical
Collins Thesaurus of the English Language – Complete and Unabridged 2nd Edition. 2002 © HarperCollins Publishers 1995, 2002


1. Occurring or existing in act or fact:
2. Not counterfeit or copied:
authentic, bona fide, genuine, good, indubitable, original, real, true, undoubted, unquestionable.
3. In agreement or correspondence with fact:
The American Heritage® Roget's Thesaurus. Copyright © 2013, 2014 by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. All rights reserved.
faktiškasiš tikrųjųtiesą sakanttikrastikroviškumas


1. (= real) → real
the actual number is much higher than thatel número real es mucho más alto
the film was based on actual eventsla película estaba basada en hechosreales
let's take an actual case/exampletomemos un caso/ejemploconcreto
there is no actual contractno hay contratopropiamentedicho
you met an actual film star?¿has conocido a una estrella de cine de verdad?
in actual facten realidad
actual sizetamañomreal
2. (= precise) [amount, figure] → exacto; [words] → exacto, textual
I don't remember the actual figuresno recuerdo las cifrasexactas
what were his actual words?¿cuáles fueron sus palabrasexactasor textuales?
3. (= very) they couldn't find the actual gun that was usedno encontraron el arma que se utilizó
the film used the actual people involved as actorsla películautilizó como actores a los implicados
4. (= proper) the actual wedding procession starts at elevenel desfile de bodapropiamentedichoempieza a las once
on the actual day somebody will carry that for youese día alguien lo llevará por ti
B.CPDactual bodily harmN (Jur) → dañosmplfísicos, lesionesfplcorporales
actual lossN (Comm) → pérdidafefectiva
Collins Spanish Dictionary - Complete and Unabridged 8th Edition 2005 © William Collins Sons & Co. Ltd. 1971, 1988 © HarperCollins Publishers 1992, 1993, 1996, 1997, 2000, 2003, 2005


(= real, genuine) [people, events] → réel(le), véritable; [number, words] → exact(e)
The film is based on actual events → Le filmrepose sur des faitsréels.
What's the actual amount? → Quel est le montantexact?
(for emphasis)à proprement parler
The actual wedding ceremony starts at 10am → La cérémonie du mariageà proprement parlercommence à 10 heures.actual bodily harm ncoupsmpl et blessuresfpl
Collins English/French Electronic Resource. © HarperCollins Publishers 2005


eigentlich; reason, price also, resulttatsächlich; case, examplekonkret; in actual facteigentlich; what were his actual words?was genau hat er gesagt?; this is the actual housedas ist hier das Haus; there is no actual contractes besteht kein eigentlicherVertrag; your actual(inf)ein echter/eine echte/ein echtes …, der/die/das echte …; actual size
(= precise)genau; I don’t remember the actual figuresich erinnere mich nicht an die genauenZahlen
(= existing now)derzeitig; actual state or situationIst-Zustandm
Collins German Dictionary – Complete and Unabridged 7th Edition 2005. © William Collins Sons & Co. Ltd. 1980 © HarperCollins Publishers 1991, 1997, 1999, 2004, 2005, 2007


[ˈæktjʊəl]adj (amount, result) → reale, vero/a, effettivo/a; (example) → concreto/a
in actual fact → in realtà
what were his actual words? → cosa ha dettoesattamente?
Collins Italian Dictionary 1st Edition © HarperCollins Publishers 1995


(ˈӕktʃuəl) adjective
real; existing; not imaginary. In actual fact he is not as stupid as you think he is. in werklikheid فِعْلِي، حَقِيقِي، رَاهِن действителен real skutečný tatsächlich faktisk; virkelig πραγματικόςreal tegelik واقعی todellinen réelבפועל, ממשי, אמיתי वास्तविक stvaran tényleges riil, sebenarnya raunverulegur reale 現実の 실제의 faktiškas, tikras īsts; patiess; faktisks hakikat sebenar werkelijkvirkelig, faktiskrzeczywisty, faktyczny په واقعي ډول real real действительный; существующий skutočný resničen stvaran faktisk, verklig แท้จริง gerçek, gerçekte 實際的 дійсний; справжній حقیقی ، واقعی thực sự 实际的
ˌactuˈality (-ˈӕ-) noun
(a) reality. the actuality of the situation. werklikheid حَقِيقَة، حَالِيَّة действителност realidade skutečnost, realita die Wirklichkeit virkelighed πραγματικότηταrealidad tegelikkus واقعیت todellisuus réalité מַמָשׁוּת वास्तव में/वस्तुत: stvarnost valóság benar-benar raunveruleiki realtà 現実 현존 tikroviškumas īstenība; realitāte kebenaran werkelijkheidvirkelighet realność رښتيا realidade realitate действительность realita stvarnost stvarnost verklighet, faktum ความจริง gerçek, hakikat 現實 дійсність, реальність واقعیت ،امر واقع sự thực 现实
ˈactually adverb
1. really. She actually saw the accident happen. regtig فِي الوَاقِع، فِي الحَقِيقَة، فِعْلاً действително na realidade skutečně, opravdu wirklich faktisk; faktiskt; virkelig; virkeligt πραγματικά, όντωςen realidad, realmente tõepoolest واقعاً؛ در عمل todella réellement באמת, ממש, בעצם, בפועל वास्तव में stvarno valóban benar-benar, sebenarnya raunverulega in realtà; veramente, realmente 実際に 실제로 iš tikrųjų īstenībā; patiesībā memang betul echtegentlig, faktiskrzeczywiście, faktycznie په رښتيا سره، واقعاً. na realidade într-adevăr действительно skutočne, naozaj v resnici zaista verkligen, faktiskt อย่างที่เกิดขึ้นตามจริง gerçekten, hakikaten 實際上 справді, дійсно در اصل thực sự 实际上
2. in fact. Actually, I'm doing something else this evening. eintlik فِي الحَقِيقَه всъщност de fato ve skutečnosti, vlastně eigentlich faktisk; i virkeligheden στην πραγματικότητα de hecho tegelikult در واقع itse asiassa en faitלמעשה, לאמיתו של דבר zapravo a helyzet az, hogy... sesungguhnya raunar in realtà 本当のことをいうと 사실은 tiesą sakant faktiski sebenarnya eigenlijk faktisk, i virkelighetenwłaściwie په واقعيت كي de facto de fapt на самом деле v skutočnosti, vlastne pravzaprav zapravo faktiskt, egentligen ตามความเป็นจริง gerçekte, aslında 事實上 насправді در اصل ، فی الحقیقت thực tế 事实上
Kernerman English Multilingual Dictionary © 2006-2013 K Dictionaries Ltd.


فِعْلِيّ skutečný faktiskwirklichπραγματικόςrealActual english translation

Actual English With Jennifer

varsinainenréel stvaranrealeEnglish 実際の 실제의daadwerkelijkfaktiskrzeczywistyrealфактический faktisk ที่จริงgerçek thực sự实际的
Multilingual Translator © HarperCollins Publishers 2009


adv. en realidad, actualmente;
English-Spanish Medical Dictionary © Farlex 2012

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Locations in Wessex, from The Wessex of Thomas Hardy by Bertram Windle, 1902, based on correspondence with Hardy.

The English author Thomas Hardy set all of his major novels in the south and southwest of England. He named the area 'Wessex' after the medieval Anglo-Saxon kingdom that existed in this part of that country prior to the unification of England by Æthelstan. Although the places that appear in his novels actually exist, in many cases he gave the place a fictional name.[1] For example, Hardy's home town of Dorchester is called Casterbridge in his books, notably in The Mayor of Casterbridge.[2][3] In an 1895 preface to the 1874 novel Far From the Madding Crowd he described Wessex as 'a merely realistic dream country'.[4]

The actual definition of 'Hardy's Wessex' varied widely throughout Hardy's career, and was not definitively settled until after he retired from writing novels. When he created the concept of a fictional Wessex, it consisted merely of the small area of Dorset in which Hardy grew up; by the time he wrote Jude the Obscure, the boundaries had extended to include all of Dorset, Wiltshire, Somerset, Devon, Hampshire, much of Berkshire, and some of Oxfordshire, with its most north-easterly point being Oxford (renamed 'Christminster' in the novel). Cornwall was also referred to but named 'Off Wessex'. Similarly, the nature and significance of ideas of 'Wessex' were developed over a long series of novels through a lengthy period of time. The idea of Wessex plays an important artistic role in Hardy's works (particularly his later novels), assisting the presentation of themes of progress, primitivism, sexuality, religion, nature and naturalism; however, this is complicated by the economic role Wessex played in Hardy's career. Considering himself primarily to be a poet, Hardy wrote novels mostly to earn money. Books that could be marketed under the Hardy brand of 'Wessex novels' were particularly lucrative, which gave rise to a tendency to sentimentalised, picturesque, populist descriptions of Wessex – which, as a glance through most tourist giftshops in the south-west will reveal, remain popular with consumers today.

Actual English Meaning

Hardy's resurrection of the name 'Wessex' is largely responsible for the popular modern use of the term to describe the south-west region of England (with the exception of Cornwall and arguably Devon); today, a panoply of organisations take their name from Hardy to describe their relationship to the area.[5] Hardy's conception of Wessex as a separate, cohesive geographical and political identity has proved powerful, despite the fact it was originally created purely as an artistic conceit, and has spawned a lucrative tourist trade, and even a devolutionist Wessex Regionalist Party.

Thomas Hardy's Wessex names[edit]

Wessex regions and actual English counties[edit]

Map of the historic counties of England on which the approximate regions of Wessex can be found. Hardy did not always use the historic boundaries in his writings
Region of WessexActual English County[6]Position on Map
Lower WessexDevon9
Mid WessexWiltshire37
North WessexBerkshire2
Outer WessexSomerset30
South WessexDorset10
Upper WessexHampshire14

(Note: The Isle of Wight, although today a separate administrative county, was considered to be a part of the county of Hampshire – and thus Upper Wessex – during Thomas Hardy's lifetime. Likewise, Alfredston (Wantage) and the surrounding area in North Wessex was part of Berkshire prior to the 1974 boundary changes but now lies in Oxfordshire.)

Outer Wessex is sometimes referred to as Nether Wessex.

Specific places in Thomas Hardy's Wessex[edit]

Key to references for the place name table[edit]

The abbreviations for Thomas Hardy's novels that are used in the table are as follows:

  • DR – Desperate Remedies (1871)
  • UtGT – Under the Greenwood Tree (1872)
  • PoBE – A Pair of Blue Eyes (1873)
  • FftMC – Far from the Madding Crowd (1874)
  • HoE – The Hand of Ethelberta (1876)
  • RotN – The Return of the Native (1878)
  • TM – The Trumpet-Major (1880)
  • L – A Laodicean (1881)
  • ToaT – Two on a Tower (1882)
  • MoC – The Mayor of Casterbridge (1886)
  • W – The Woodlanders (1887)
  • WT – Wessex Tales (1888)
  • TotD – Tess of the d'Urbervilles (1891)
  • JtO – Jude the Obscure (1895)
  • WB – The Well-Beloved (1897)
  • WP – Wessex Poems and Other Verses (1898)

Table of Wessex place-names, their actual places, and their appearance in Hardy's novels[edit]

Wessex NameRegion of WessexActual NameAppearance in Hardy's Novels[6][7]
Abbot's-CernelSouth WessexCerne AbbasWhere Mrs. Dollery was driving to in the beginning of the novel. (W)
AbbotseaSouth WessexAbbotsbury
AldbrickhamNorth WessexReadingWhere Jude and Sue lived together after Sue left Phillotson. It is also where Arabella used to work as a barmaid before she met Jude. (JtO)
AlfredstonNorth WessexWantageJude Fawley becomes a mason's apprentice there. It is also where he works following his marriage to Arabella Donn. (JtO)
AngleburySouth WessexWarehamWhere Thomasin and Wildeve's marriage did not take place due to an invalid licence (RotN)
Where Ethelberta lodged in the beginning of the novel. (HoE)
BramshurstUpper WessexLyndhurstTess and Angel fled to an unoccupied manor house in Bramshurst near the end of the novel. (TotD)
BudmouthSouth WessexWeymouthWhere Frank Troy goes to gamble on horse races. (FftMC)
Eustacia Vye's hometown (RotN)
The working place of Owen. (DR)
On the way home from Budmouth, Dick and Fancy confessed to each other. (UtGT)
One of the cities where Farfrae did his business. (MoC)
The neighbouring village of Overcombe/(Sutton Poyntz), the principal location of TM, is sometimes called Budmouth-Regis in Hardy's novels, but that is more precisely Melcombe Regis, where George III popularised the watering place; Weymouth is the other side of the river.(TM)
CasterbridgeSouth WessexDorchesterThe principal location of The Mayor of Casterbridge. (MoC)
Where Fanny Robin dies at the poorhouse, and whose Corn Exchange is frequently visited by Bathsheba and Boldwood. (FftMC)
Where Rhoda and Farmer Lodge's son is hanged. The Withered Arm. (WT)[8]
When Tess's horse died while delivering goods from her home town to Casterbridge. (TotD)
Chalk NewtonSouth WessexMaiden NewtonSite of Flintcomb-Ash farm, where Tess worked after Angel left her. (TotD)
ChaseboroughSouth WessexCranborneTess passed through Chaseborough on the way from home to Trantridge. (TotD)
ChristminsterNorth WessexOxfordWhere Jude Fawley goes to become a scholar, and is advised to give up his career choice. Sue Bridehead works in a shop which produces religious artefacts there, meets her cousin, and is thrown from her lodgings. (JtO)
Cytherea and Owen's hometown. Although Christminster is technically not within the borders of Hardy's Wessex, as it is located to the north of the River Thames, he describes it in Jude the Obscure as 'within hail of the Wessex border, and almost with the tip of one small toe within it'. (DR)
Cliff MartinOuter WessexCombe MartinCombe Martin is actually in Devon, indicating that Hardy's boundaries are not necessarily linked to current county boundaries
CresscombeNorth WessexLetcombe BassettArabella's hometown. (JtO)
DeansleighSouth WessexRomseySir Ashley Mottisfont and his Lady Philipa reside at Deansleigh Park (probably a reference to Broadlands).[9]
DownstapleLower WessexBarnstaple
DurnoverSouth WessexFordington
EndelstowOff WessexSt JuliotThe home of Elfride Swancourt and her Rector father (PoBE). In real life this was where Thomas met Emma whom he later married.
EmminsterSouth WessexBeaminster[8]The home of Angel Clare, and the site of Clare's father's vicarage. (TotD)
EversheadSouth WessexEvershotWhere Tess met Alec for the first time after they parted, when Alec was preaching. (TotD)
ExonburyLower WessexExeterWhere Grace went to after she found out Fitzpier's affair. (W)
Falls ParkOuter WessexMells Park
FountallOuter WessexWells
GaymeadNorth WessexTheale(JtO and WT)
HavenpoolSouth WessexPooleNewson landed here on his return from Newfoundland. (MoC)
Isle of SlingersSouth WessexIsle of PortlandThe principal location of the Well-Beloved. (WB)
IvellOuter WessexYeovil
KennetbridgeNorth WessexNewbury'A thriving town not more than a dozen miles south of Marygreen' (JtO)[10] between Melchester and Christminster.[11] The main road (A338) from Oxford to Salisbury runs past Fawley and through Hungerford, which may be Kennetbridge instead of Newbury, which is to the south-east of Fawley.
KingsbereSouth WessexBere RegisHere is situated the Church of the d'Urbervilles. After Tess' Father's death, the Durbeyfield family take refuge outside the chapel. (TotD)
KnollseaSouth WessexSwanageWhere Lord Mountclere lived. (HoE)
Lulwind CoveSouth WessexLulworth CoveWhere Sergeant Troy is thought to have drowned. (FftMC)
LumsdonNorth WessexCumnorIt is there that Jude Fawley meets up with his old teacher Mr. Phillotson again. It is where Sue Bridehead starts to work as a teacher and promises herself in marriage to Mr. Phillotson. (JtO)
MarlottSouth WessexMarnhullTess Durbeyfield is born and brought up there. After becoming pregnant by Alec D'Urberville she returns to the village and gives birth to a baby boy, who dies in infancy. (TotD)
MarygreenNorth WessexFawleyDrusilla Fawley runs a bakery there. It is the place where Sue Bridehead spent her childhood. Jude Fawley is brought there following the death of his father, and it is where he matures into a man. (JtO)
MelchesterMid WessexSalisburyThis is the place where Jude goes to prepare himself for the ministry, and where Sue Bridehead is studying to become a teacher. The latter runs away from her school there, and later marries Mr. Phillotson in the town. (JtO)
Where Troy's military camp deployed. (FftMC)
Where Julian moved to after Ethelberta refuse his love. (HE)
Lord Helmsdale was the bishop of Melchester. (ToaT)
Tess and Angel pass through this city on their way to Stonehenge. (TotD)
MellstockSouth WessexStinsford and Higher & Lower BockhamptonThomas Hardy's birthplace. Hardy's heart is also buried here, next to his first wife, Emma. Jude Fawley's father died there. (JtO)
Nearly all of Under the Greenwood Tree is set in Mellstock. (UtGT)
MiddletonSouth WessexMilton AbbasWhere Charmond lived. (W)
Middleton AbbeySouth WessexMilton AbbeyWhere Charmond lived. (W)
NarrowbourneOuter WessexWest CokerWhere the main character is a priest in A Tragedy of Two Ambitions a short story part of Life's Little Ironies.
OvercombeSouth WessexSutton PoyntzThe principal location of The Trumpet-Major.(TM)
One of the places from where the vans of carriers in and out of Casterbridge hailed. (MoC)[12]
Port BredySouth WessexBridport[8]Where Lucetta and Farfrae secretly married. (MoC)
Po'shamSouth WessexPorteshamThe home of Captain Thomas Hardy, one of Lord Nelson's commanders at the Battle of Trafalgar, who lived at Portesham House. (TM)
QuartershotUpper WessexAldershotAn important military station near Stoke-Barehills. (JtO)
SandbourneUpper WessexBournemouth[8]Where Tess Durbeyfield lives with Alec d'Urberville, and where she murders him upon the return of her husband, Angel Clare. (TotD).
It is also where Sue Bridehead's freethinking friend was buried, and where she was the only mourner at his funeral. (JtO)
The principal location of The Hand of Ethelberta. (HoE)
ShastonSouth WessexShaftesburyJack Durbeyfield visits the doctor in Shaston and learns that he has a bad heart. (TotD) Mr. Phillotson moves there to run a school. Jude Fawley travels there to see Sue Bridehead, who, married to Mr. Phillotson, is working in the town, and they flee the place together. (JtO)
Sherton AbbasSouth WessexSherborne[8]The major neighboring city of the Hintocks, where The Woodlanders took place. (W)
SlingersSouth WessexIsle of PortlandThe principal location of The Well-Beloved. (WB)
SolentseaUpper WessexSouthseaThe setting of the short story 'An Imaginative Woman.'
Stancy CastleOuter WessexDunster CastleThe principal location of A Laodicean. (L)
Stoke BarehillsUpper WessexBasingstokeWhere Great Wessex Agricultural Show was held. (JtO)
Street of WellsSouth WessexFortuneswellThe main street on Isle of Slingers, where The Well-Beloved mostly took place. (WB)
ToneboroughOuter WessexTaunton
TrantridgeSouth WessexPentridgeSite of the D'Urberville estate. (TotD)
WeatherburySouth WessexPuddletown[8]Farms of Bathsheba and Boldwood, main setting for Far From the Madding Crowd (FftMC)
Weatherbury FarmSouth WessexWaterston ManorBathsheba's farm, in Far From the Madding Crowd (FftMC)
WellbridgeSouth WessexWoolWhere Tess told Angel her story her they married. (TotD)
Weydon-PriorsUpper WessexWeyhillWhere Michael Henchard sells his wife while he is drunk. (MoC)
WintoncesterSouth WessexWinchesterTess Durbeyfield is imprisoned and executed in this former capital of Wessex. (TotD)

In art and books[edit]

Artists such as Walter Tyndale, Edmund Hort New, Charles George Harper and others, have painted or drawn the landscapes, places and buildings described in Hardy's novels. Their work was used to illustrate books exploring the real-life countryside on which the fictional county of Wessex was based:

  • B. C. A. Windle & E. H. New (ill.). The Wessex of Thomas Hardy (London, New York, J. Lane, 1902).
  • Charles G. Harper. The Hardy country; literary landmarks of the Wessex novels (London, A. & C. Black, 1904).
  • Clive Holland. Wessex (A & C Black, 1906).
  • Sidney Heath.The Heart of Wessex (Blackie & Son, 1910?).
  • Charles G. Harper. Wessex ('Beautiful Britain', London: A. & C. Black, 1911).
  • R. Thurston Hopkins & E. Harries (ill.). Thomas Hardy's Dorset (New York: D. Appleton and co. 1922).
  • Hermann Lea. Thomas Hardy's Wessex (London, Macmillan and co. 1911).
  • Ralph Pite, Hardy's geography: Wessex and the regional novel. Palgrave, 2002.
  • Andrew D. Radford, Mapping the Wessex novel: landscape, history and the parochial in British literature, 1870–1940. (London; New York: Continuum International Pub., 2010.
  • Walter Tyndale. Hardy country water-colours (A & C Black, 19??).
  • Barry J Cade. Thomas Hardy's Locations (Casterbridge Publishing Limited 2015) A full colour tourist guide to the places Hardy had in mind when he wrote 'The Mayor of Casterbridge' and 'Far from the Madding Crowd.'


  1. ^'Map of Thomas Hardy's Wessex'. British Library. Retrieved 25 November 2015.
  2. ^Birchall, Eugene. 'Wessex Place Names'. Wessex Photos. Retrieved 25 November 2015.
  3. ^'An Introduction To Hardy's Wessex'. South Coast Central. Retrieved 25 November 2015.
  4. ^'Exploring Thomas Hardy's West Dorset'(PDF). Visit Dorset. Retrieved 25 November 2015.
  5. ^'Thomas Hardy's Wessex?'. University of St Andrews. Retrieved 25 November 2015.
  6. ^ ab'Wessex Novel Placenames'. Retrieved 25 November 2015.
  7. ^'Wessex place-names'. Thomas Hardy's Wessex. Retrieved 25 November 2015.
  8. ^ abcdef'Thomas Hardy's Dorset inspirations'. BBC. Retrieved 25 November 2015.
  9. ^Ray, Martin (2016). Thomas Hardy: A Textual Study of the Short Stories. London: Routledge. p. 105. ISBN978-1351879378.
  10. ^Paragraph 4, Chapter VII, Part Fifth, Thomas Hardy, Jude the Obscure at
  11. ^Paragraph 6, Chapter X, Part Third, Thomas Hardy, Jude the Obscure at
  12. ^Chapter IX, Thomas Hardy, The Mayor of Casterbridge at

External links[edit]

Actual Dictionary Online

  • Thomas Hardy's Wessex Research site, including maps, by Dr Birgit Plietzsch

Actual English Talk

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