You've heard it before. It's a common effect on lead vocals in pop music and has been for many year. I'm referring to the effect that makes the vocal sound like it's coming through a telephone line. In fact, when I think of this effect the first song that pops into my head is the song by ELO called, interestingly enough, Telephone Line. Other uses for the effect that are common include making the drums sound like they are being played over a phone line at the beginning of the song and then opening up the sound later in the song to the full thing.
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The way this is achieved is by severely limiting the frequencies that are audible on the target track to a very narrow range in the 'mids' - between about 400 Hz and 4 KHz. See the picture on the right. You can use an EQ for this, or you can use frequency filters like the one in the picture in Adobe Audition called an FFT filter. FFT stands for Fast Fourier Transform, which you can learn more about here - In the Adobe Audition FFT filter, the preset is called 'OnHold 400-->4K,' the 'on-hold' part being a reference to being on the phone.
3) The low-pass filter frequency is 47.5 hz; that is as low as the FFT EQ in Audition will show. However, remember that I am removing anything below 500 hz after I apply the low-pass filter. Low pass filter(LP): passes the lower frequency and cuts the higher frequencies. Ex: for vocals above 10000hz it’s cuts Narrow band pass filter/ telephony: 350-4000hz here only the vocals of human to avoid background noise. An 'FFT filter' is not an established term. The main purpose of FFT is to speed up convolution with an ongoing signal (cf 'overlap-add' and 'overlap-shift' algorithms), so I expect the 'FFT filter' to just be an implementation of a long-response FIR filter that is rather efficient at the price of considerable time lag.
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In Reaper, you can just add the ReaEQ equalizer effect that comes with the program, and change bands 1 and 4 to high-pass and low-pass, respectively, in the Type drop-down menu. Then drag the band circles until #2 is at 400 Hz and #3 is at 4KHz. Easy-peesy-lemon-squeezy!
- Equalization for dialogue tracks is explained in this Adobe Audition tutorial. Audio expert Scott Hirsch discusses how to use an EQ plug-in as a track insert and apply an appropriate high pass and low pass filter for use on production dialogue in an audio for video scene edited and mixed in Adobe Audition's multitrack editor.
- EQ and low-pass both apply a persistent filter to the sound, whereas a de-esser will dynamically engage whenever the chosen frequency and amplitude are present (that’s how I understand it, at any rate).
BTW,in yet another attempt to confuse you the term high-pass filter actually means that you are preventing the low frequencies (those to the left of the target frequency) from being heard and only allowing the frequencies that are higher than that to 'pass' through the filter.
So you'll usually find a high-pass-filter set up in the low frequencies (in the Reaper pic, band #1 is a high-pass filter, but it is located on the left of the spectrum - the low part). And the opposite is true for a low-pass filter. So in reality you could call a high-pass filter a 'low-cut filter' and a low-pass filter a 'high-cut' filter. I always have to do a mental translation in my head anyway. Sheesh. But there you have it.
Now you know how to create that phone effect in your recordings.
By the way, if you want to learn more about Reaper recording software, check out our latest recording tutorial course The Newbies Guide To Audio Recording Awesomeness 2: Pro Recording With Reaper.
A low pass filter is a filter which passes low-frequency signals and blocks, or impedes, high-frequency signals.
In other words, low-frequency signals go through much easier and with less resistance and high-frequency signals have a much hardergetting through, which is why it's a low pass filter.
Low pass filters can be constructed using resistors with either capacitors or inductors. A low pass filter composed of a resistor and a capacitor is called a low pass RC filter. And a low pass filter with a resistor and an inductor is called a low pass RL filter.
We will go through both of these type of circuits on this page and show how both RC and LC low pass filtersare constructed. Both circuits have the effect of passing through low frequency signals while impeding high-frequency ones.
Low Pass RC Filter
A Low pass RC filter, again, is a filter circuit composed of a resistor and capacitor which passes through low-frequency signals, while blockinghigh frequency signals.
To create a low pass RC filter, the resistor is placed in series to the input signal and the capacitor is placed in parallel to the input signal, such as shown in the circuit below:
So, with this setup, the above circuit is a low pass filter. As a capacitor is a reactive device, it offers differing resistance to signals of different frequencies entering through it. A capacitor is a reactive device which offers very high resistance to low-frequency or DC signals. And it offers low resistance to high-frequency signals. As it offers very high resistance to DC signals, in this circuit, it will block DC from entering and pass them off to an alternative part in the circuit, which is shown to the right by the arrow. High-frequency signals will go through the capacitor, since the capacitor offers them a very low-resistance path. Remember that current always takes the path of leastresistance. Being that a capacitor represents a low resistance in a circuit for high-frequency signals, they will take the path through the capacitor, while low-frequencysignals will take an alternative, lower-resistance path.
How to Build a Low Pass RC Filter
Now that we've gone through what a low pass RC filter is, let's go over a practical example of building one.
To build a low pass filter, the components we will use are a function generator, a 10nF ceramic capacitor, and a 1KΩ resistor.
This is the schematic of the circuit we will build, shown below:
The formula to find the frequency cutoff point of an RC circuit is, frequency= 1/2πRC. Doing the math, with the values shown above, we get a frequency of, frequency= 1/2πRC = 1/2(3.14)(1KΩ)(10nF)= 15,923 Hz, which is approximately 15.9KHz.
This means that all frequencies above 15.9KHz are attenuated. And as you get further (higher) from the 15.9KHz region, the attenuation becomes greater and greater.
Frequencies below 15.9KHz are passed through without attenuation.
So if we input an AC signal into the circuit from the function generator and make the signal a low frequency such as 10Hz, the circuit will pass this signal to output almost completely unattenuated. This is because low frequency signals do not take the path of the capacitor. You can check this if you have an oscilloscope. If you now increase the frequency of the signal to 30KHz, the signal will pass through to output with great attenuation. This is because high-frequency signals go through the capacitor and not to output, because capacitor is low resistance to them.
Low Pass RL Filter
A low pass RL filter, again, is a filter circuit composed of a resistor and inductor which passes through low-frequency signals, while blockinghigh-frequency signals.
To create a low pass RL filter, the inductor is placed in series with the input signal and the resistor is placed in parallel to the input signal, such as shown in the circuit below:
This circuit above is a low pass RL filter. How it works is based on the principle of inductive reactance. Inductive reactance is how the impedance, or resistance, of the inductor changes based on the frequency of the signal passing through the inductor. Unlike a resistor, which is a nonreactive device, an inductor offers differing impedance values to signals of differing frequencies, just as capacitors do. However, unlike capacitors, inductors offer very high resistance to high-frequency signals and offers low resistance to low-frequency signals. So it's the opposite of a capacitor. Therefore, the placement of the resistors are switched in RC and RL filter circuits.So, based on this, the above RL circuit works effectively as a low pass filter. It blocks high-frequency signals from entering and allows low-frequency signals to pass through unimpeded.
How to Build a Low Pass RL Filter
So, now that RL filters have been summarized, let's go over a practical example of building one.
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To build a low pass filter, the components we will use are a function generator, a 470mH inductor, and a 10KΩ resistor.
This is the schematic of the circuit we will build, shown below:
The formula to find the frequency cutoff point of an RL circuit is, frequency= R/2πL. Doing the math, with the values shown above, we get a frequency of, frequency= R/2πL = (10KΩ)/(2(3.14)(470mH))= 3,388 Hz, which is approximately 3.39KHz.
This means that all frequencies above 3.39KHz are attenuated. And as you get further (higher) from the 3.39KHz region, the attenuation becomes greater and greater.
Frequencies below 3.39KHz are passed through without attenuation.
So, again, you can check this on an oscilloscope to see that very low-frequency signals are passed through to output unattenuated, while high-frequency signals undergo attenuation.
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To see how a low pass filter works in a real circuit, see the following video.Below you can see a video of an RC low pass filter. This video demonstrates how the RC low pass filter lets low-frequency signals pass through to output with full gain, no attenuation, while greatly attenuating high-frequency signals.
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