Visual Studio Calculator Code

  
  1. What Is Visual Studio Code
  2. Visual Studio 2012 Calculator Code

This tutorial shows how to develop a simple calculator application in C that runs in a console window using Visual Studio 2017. Time to Complete. A simple calculator application written in C that performs math operations on two inputs and outputs the result to. Calculation commands and tools for VS Code. To install Calculator, do the following steps: Open Visual Studio Code; Open the Quick Open Palette (By default: Ctrl-P) Type ext install calculator; Select the Calculator extension; Select Install; Usage. Select a math expression: The math widget in the status bar will show.

What Is Visual Studio Code

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In this tutorial for C#, you'll use Visual Studio to create and run a console app and explore some features of the Visual Studio integrated development environment (IDE) while you do so.

If you haven't already installed Visual Studio, go to the Visual Studio downloads page to install it for free.

If you haven't already installed Visual Studio, go to the Visual Studio downloads page to install it for free.

Create a project

Visual Studio Calculator Code

To start, we'll create a C# application project. The project type comes with all the template files you'll need, before you've even added anything!

  1. Open Visual Studio 2017.

  2. From the top menu bar, choose File > New > Project.(Alternatively, press Ctrl+Shift+N).

  3. In the left pane of the New Project dialog box, expand C#, and then choose .NET Core. In the middle pane, choose Console App (.NET Core). Then name the file Calculator.

Add a workload (optional)

If you don't see the Console App (.NET Core) project template, you can get it by adding the .NET Core cross-platform development workload. Here's how.

Option 1: Use the New Project dialog box

  1. Choose the Open Visual Studio Installer link in the left pane of the New Project dialog box.

  2. The Visual Studio Installer launches. Choose the .NET Core cross-platform development workload, and then choose Modify.

Option 2: Use the Tools menu bar

  1. Cancel out of the New Project dialog box and from the top menu bar, choose Tools > Get Tools and Features.

  2. The Visual Studio Installer launches. Choose the .NET Core cross-platform development workload, and then choose Modify.

  1. Open Visual Studio 2019.

  2. On the start window, choose Create a new project.

  3. In the Create a new project window, choose C# from the Language list. Next, choose Windows from the Platform list and Console from the project types list.

    After you apply the language, platform, and project type filters, choose the Console Application template, and then choose Next.

    Note

    If you do not see the Console Application template, you can install it from the Create a new project window. In the Not finding what you're looking for? message, choose the Install more tools and features link.

    Then, in the Visual Studio Installer, choose the .NET Core cross-platform development workload.

    After that, choose the Modify button in the Visual Studio Installer. You might be prompted to save your work; if so, do so. Next, choose Continue to install the workload. Then, return to step 2 in this 'Create a project' procedure.

  4. In the Configure your new project window, type or enter Calculator in the Project name box. Then, choose Next.

  5. In the Additional information window, .NET Core 3.1 should already be selected for your target framework. If not, select .NET Core 3.1. Then, choose Create.

    Visual Studio opens your new project, which includes default 'Hello World' code.

Create the app

First, we'll explore some basic integer math in C#. Then, we'll add code to create a basic calculator. After that, we'll debug the app to find and fix errors. And finally, we'll refine the code to make it more efficient.

Explore integer math

Let's start with some basic integer math in C#.

  1. In the code editor, delete the default 'Hello World' code.

    Specifically, delete the line that says, Console.WriteLine('Hello World!');.

  2. In its place, type the following code:

    Notice that when you do so, the IntelliSense feature in Visual Studio offers you the option to autocomplete the entry.

    Note

    The following animation isn't intended to duplicate the preceding code. It's intended only to show how the autocomplete feature works.

  3. Choose the green Start button next to Calculator to build and run your program, or press F5.

    A console window opens that reveals the sum of 42 + 119, which is 161.

  4. (Optional) You can change the operator to change the result. For example, you can change the + operator in the int c = a + b; line of code to - for subtraction, * for multiplication, or / for division. Then, when you run the program, the result changes, too.

  5. Close the console window.

Add code to create a calculator

Let's continue by adding a more complex set of calculator code to your project.

  1. Delete all the code you see in the code editor.

  2. Enter or paste the following new code into the code editor:

  3. Choose Calculator to run your program, or press F5.

    A console window opens.

  4. View your app in the console window, and then follow the prompts to add the numbers 42 and 119.

    Your app should look similar to the following screenshot:

Add functionality to the calculator

Let's tweak the code to add further functionality.

Add decimals

The calculator app currently accepts and returns whole numbers. But, it will be more precise if we add code that allows for decimals.

As in the following screenshot, if you run the app and divide number 42 by the number 119, your result is 0 (zero), which isn't exact.

Let's fix the code so that it handles decimals.

  1. Press Ctrl + H to open the Find and Replace control.

  2. Change each instance of the int variable to float.

    Make sure that you toggle Match case (Alt+C) and Match whole word (Alt+W) in the Find and Replace control.

  3. Run your calculator app again and divide the number 42 by the number 119.

    Notice that the app now returns a decimal numeral instead of zero.

However, the app produces only a decimal result. Let's make a few more tweaks to the code so that the app can calculate decimals too.

  1. Use the Find and Replace control (Ctrl + H) to change each instance of the float variable to double, and to change each instance of the Convert.ToInt32 method to Convert.ToDouble.

  2. Run your calculator app and divide the number 42.5 by the number 119.75.

    Notice that the app now accepts decimal values and returns a longer decimal numeral as its result.

    (We'll fix the number of decimal places in the Revise the code section.)

Debug the app

We've improved on our basic calculator app, but it doesn't yet have fail safes in place to handle exceptions, such as user input errors.

For example, if you try to divide a number by zero, or enter an alpha character when the app expects a numeric character (or vice versa), the app might stop working, return an error, or return an unexpected nonnumeric result.

Let's walk through a few common user input errors, locate them in the debugger if they appear there, and fix them in the code.

Tip

For more information about the debugger and how it works, see the First look at the Visual Studio debugger page.

Visual Studio 2012 Calculator Code

Fix the 'divide by zero' error

When you try to divide a number by zero, the console app might freeze and then show you what's wrong in the code editor.

Note

Sometimes, the app doesn't freeze and the debugger won't show a divide-by-zero error. Instead, the app might return an unexpected nonnumeric result, such as an infinity symbol. The following code fix still applies.

Let's change the code to handle this error.

  1. Delete the code that appears directly between case 'd': and the comment that says // Wait for the user to respond before closing.

  2. Replace it with the following code:

    After you add the code, the section with the switch statement should look similar to the following screenshot:

Now, when you divide any number by zero, the app will ask for another number. Even better: It won't stop asking until you provide a number other than zero.

Fix the 'format' error

If you enter an alpha character when the app expects a numeric character (or vice versa), the console app freezes. Visual Studio then shows you what's wrong in the code editor.

To fix this error, we must refactor the code that we've previously entered.

Revise the code

Rather than rely on the program class to handle all the code, we'll divide our app into two classes: Calculator and Program.

The Calculator class will handle the bulk of the calculation work, and the Program class will handle the user interface and error-capturing work.

Let's get started.

  1. Delete everything in the Calculator namespace between its opening and closing braces:

  2. Next, add a new Calculator class, as follows:

  3. Then, add a new Program class, as follows:

  4. Choose Calculator to run your program, or press F5.

  5. Follow the prompts and divide the number 42 by the number 119. Your app should look similar to the following screenshot:

    Notice that you have the option to enter more equations until you choose to close the console app. And, we've also reduced the number of decimal places in the result.

Close the app

  1. If you haven't already done so, close the calculator app.

  2. Close the Output pane in Visual Studio.

  3. In Visual Studio, press Ctrl+S to save your app.

  4. Close Visual Studio.

Code complete

During this tutorial, we've made a lot of changes to the calculator app. The app now handles computing resources more efficiently, and it handles most user input errors.

Here's the complete code, all in one place:

Simple calculator in visual studioCalculator

Next steps

Continue with more tutorials:

Continue with the second part of this tutorial:

See also